Importance of OVN

Vitamins play crucial roles in both human and animal nutrition and the new concept of OVN is essential in this modern era of farming.

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Poultry Breeders

Animals selected for breeding purposes require specialized attention, precise management practices and a diet of high nutritional quality...

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Laying Hens

Commercial egg-laying strains have changed a great deal in a few years. Logically, these changes in themselves should call for increased nutritional requirements in general, and in particular, increased vitamin requirements...

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Broilers & Turkeys

Broiler and turkey diets need to be supplemented with vitamins as the primary materials do not contain them in sufficient quantities.

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Most recommendations for vitamins in swine nutrition are based on studies carried out several decades ago. There are several reasons to suggest the need to update the guidelines and these are covered in this chapter focusing on swine nutrition...

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Beef Cattle

Recommendations for vitamin levels in beef herds has been completely reviewed in this chapter, with the purpose of supplying vitamin levels appropriate to this group of animals...

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Dairy Cattle

The increase in productive yield of the dairy cow has revealed a series of production problems which, in recent years, have enabled deficiencies of some vitamins to be identified. This chapter updates best practice.

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R. Casals
S. Calsamiglia

Department of Animal and Food Science, Autonomous University of Barcelona 08193-Bellaterra, Spain

OVN in Beef Cattle


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The concept of vitamin supplementation has undergone an important change in the last few years and has moved from the minimum supplementation, which guarantees the functioning of the body and production, to necessary supplementation which also reduces the incidence of pathological problems and/ or improves the quality of the product.

This chapter reviews and updates the recommendations for vitamins in beef herds, with the purpose of supplying vitamin levels appropriate to this group of animals.

When making recommendations on the necessary vitamin supply in the diet of fattening calves, we will also be considering the content of this in the final product for human consumption, which in this case is meat.

Contents: OVN in beef cattle

Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Thiamine (vitamin B1)
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
Niacin (vitamin B3)
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)
Biotin (vitamin H or B8)
Folic acid
Pantothenic acid
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Supply of vitamins and nutritional value of beef cattle for human consumption